Tremoulet, Adriana H. Study design We performed a retrospective review of patients with KD treated within 10 days of fever onset. Using multivariate analysis, independent predictors of IVIG- resistance were combined into a scoring system. Results In , Scoring systems based on demographic and laboratory data were insufficiently accurate to be clinically useful in our ethnically diverse population. The Italian elm breeding program for Dutch elm disease resistance. In the 20th century, elms across Europe and North America were devastated by two pandemics of Dutch elm disease DED , caused by the introduction of two fungal pathogens: Ophiostoma ulmi, followed by O.
Quantitative disease resistance : dissection and adoption in maize. Maize production is constantly threatened by the presence of devastating pathogens worldwide. Characterization of the genetic components underlying disease resistance is a major research area in maize which is highl Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease. Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide.
Evaluating paradox walnut rootstocks for resistance to Armillaria root disease. Unfortuntely, Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to Armillaria root disease. The relative resistance of new clonal, Paradox rootstock Gene discovery and marker development using DNA based tools require plant populations with well-documented phenotypes.
Related crops such as apples and pears may share a number of genes, for example resistance to common diseases , and data mining in one crop may reveal genes for the other. However, u Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks.
This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX rootstocks wit Genome-wide motif searches identified genes in the lettuce reference genome of cv. Salinas that are potentially involved in pathogen recognition, of which were predicted to encode nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat receptor NLR proteins.
Using a maximum-likelihood approach, we grouped the NLRs into 25 multigene families and 17 singletons. The majority of NLR-encoding genes are located in five major resistance clusters MRCs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 and cosegregate with multiple disease resistance phenotypes.
MRC2 spans 73 Mb and contains 61 NLRs of six different gene families that cosegregate with nine disease resistance phenotypes. A library of 33 transgenic RNA interference tester stocks was generated for functional analysis of NLR-encoding genes that cosegregated with disease resistance phenotypes in each of the MRCs.
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The general composition of MRCs is conserved across different genotypes; however, the specific repertoire of NLR-encoding genes varied particularly of the rapidly evolving Type I genes. These tester stocks are valuable resources for future analyses of additional resistance phenotypes. Renegotiating environments to achieve participation: A metasynthesis of qualitative chronic disease research. Qualitative studies describe environmental influences on participation in adults with chronic disease , but translating these findings into practice can be difficult.
This study sought to synthesize qualitative research findings regarding the influence of environmental factors on participation among adults with chronic disease. Study findings were analyzed using metasynthesis methods to identify themes. For adults with chronic disease , renegotiating their environments and occupations to achieve, maintain, or rework their participation involves understanding support processes, being ordinary and able, navigating systems, and navigating physical environments.
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Key areas that occupational therapy interventions can target are facilitating constructive collaboration between client and support person, fostering connections with others, recognizing cultural pressure to be ordinary and able, and advocating for supportive policy and practice. Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms.
Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco.
Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids.
Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations mycorrhiza with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF.
Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested.
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The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants.
Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza. Phytoplasmas such as " Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni," the causal agent of X- disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis.
This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry Prunus virginiana L. A consensus chokecherry genetic map "Cho" was developed with JoinMap 4. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2, cM with an average marker density of 3. Three significant quantitative trait loci QTL associated with X- disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X- disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.
Awareness of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescribing in UTI treatment: a qualitative study among primary care physicians in Sweden. To improve education and information for general practitioners in relation to rational antibiotic prescribing for urinary tract infection UTI , it is important to be aware of GPs' views of resistance and how it influences their choice of UTI treatment.
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The aim of this study was to explore variations in views of resistance and UTI treatment decisions among general practitioners GPs in a county in Sweden. Qualitative , semi-structured interviews were analysed with a phenomenographic approach and content analysis. Primary care in Kronoberg, a county in southern Sweden. A purposeful sample of 20 GPs from 15 of 25 health centres in the county. The variation of perceptions of antibiotic resistance in UTI treatment. Three different ways of viewing resistance in UTI treatment were identified.
These were: A No problem, I have never seen resistance , B The problem is bigger somewhere else, and C The development of antibiotic resistance is serious and we must be careful. Moreover, GPs' perceptions of antibiotic resistance were mirrored in how they reported their treatment of UTIs in practice. Only GPs who expressed concerns about resistance followed prescribing guidelines completely.
This offers valuable insights into the planning and most likely the outcome of awareness or educational activities aimed at changed antibiotic prescribing behaviour. In polycystic ovarian disease there is a strong association between hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism but not with obesity alone. The magnitude of peripheral insulin resistance is similar to that seen in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Mild hyperinsulinemia in PCOD patients is not impair the carbohydrate metabolism.
The elimination of the cause of hyperandrogenism by bilateral oophorectomy, long-acting Gn-RH agonist or antiandrogen cyproterone acetate did not improve the associated insulin resistance. In opposition to insulin resistance in the tissues responsible for metabolism of carbohydrate, the ovary remains sensitive to the effects of pancreatic hormone. Presumably this mechanism involved the interaction with IGF-I receptors to stimulate thecal and stromal androgen production. Insulin may sensitize the stroma to the stimulatory effect of LH. Insulin resistance in clinical and experimental alcoholic liver disease.
Alcoholic liver disease ALD is the number one cause of liver failure worldwide; its management costs billions of health care dollars annually. Since the advent of the obesity epidemic, insulin resistance and diabetes have become common clinical findings in patients with ALD; and the development of insulin resistance predicts the progression from simple steatosis to cirrhosis in ALD patients.
Both clinical and experimental data implicate the impairment of several mediators of insulin signaling in ALD, and experimental data suggest that insulin-sensitizing therapies improve liver histology. This review explores the contribution of impaired insulin signaling in ALD and summarizes the current understanding of the synergistic relationship between alcohol and nutrient excess in promoting hepatic inflammation and disease.
The impact of meticillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer and their family members: A qualitative study. Little is known about the impact of meticillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer, such as its impact on the quality of life of this vulnerable group. To date, research on meticillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the palliative care setting has had a quantitative focus. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a meticillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis on patients and their carers.